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Monday, 24 April 2017

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24‭ ‬April‭ ‬1916:‭ ‬The Easter Rising/‭ ‬Amach na Cásca‭ ‬began.‭ ‬The Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army seized various locations around the centre of Dublin including:

The GPO‭; ‬The Four Courts‭; ‬Boland's Mill,‭ ‬Jacob’s biscuit factory‭; ‬St.‭ ‬Stephen's Green and strategic buildings such as the South Dublin Union‭ (‬now St.‭ ‬James‭' ‬Hospital‭) ‬as well as important approaches to the city such as Mount Street Bridge.‭ ‬Outbreaks of street fighting in the City commenced as the insurgents engaged members of the Crown Forces and endeavoured to secure their positions.

About noon outside the GPO Padraig Pearse read out the Proclamation of the Irish Republic:

IRISHMEN AND IRISHWOMEN:‭ ‬In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood,‭ ‬Ireland,‭ ‬through us,‭ ‬summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom‭…‬.

‭ ‬signed by Thomas J.‭ ‬Clarke‭; ‬Sean Mac Diarmada‭; ‬Thomas MacDonagh P.‭ ‬H.‭ ‬Pearse,‭ ‬Eamon Ceannt‭; ‬James Connolly and Joseph Plunkett.

Apart from the GPO the other garrisons of the insurgents were distributed as follows:

First battalion:‭ ‬Under Commandant Edward Daly,‭ ‬took possession of the Four Courts.
Second battalion:‭ ‬Commandant Thomas McDonagh‭ – ‬occupied Jacob’s Biscuit factory.
Third battalion:‭ ‬Commandant Eamon de Valera‭ ‬-‭ ‬occupied Boland’s flour mills and the railway line from Westland Row to Lansdowne Road.
Fourth Battalion:‭ ‬Commandant Eamon Ceannt occupied the South Dublin Union.‭[‬James Street Hospital‭]‬.
The Citizen Army commanded by Michael Mallin and Countess Markievizc occupied St.‭ ‬Stephen’s Green.

That day the men in the GPO fired upon patrol of British Lancers making their way down Sackville St,‭ ‬killing some of them and forcing the others to flee.‭ ‬There was also fighting at St Stephens Green,‭ ‬Dublin Castle,‭ ‬O’Connell St.‭ ‬and the North Wall.‭ ‬Commandant Daly seized the British Army’s Linen Hall Barracks in north central Dublin.

Overall the armed clashes on Easter Monday were little more than skirmishes as the British were dumbfounded by the day’s events.‭ ‬However they quickly rallied and desperate measures were implemented to hurry reinforcements to the City to regain Dublin from the Irish‭ ‘‬Rebels‭’‬.‭  

Sunday, 23 April 2017

23‭ ‬April‭ ‬1014:‭ ‬The Battle of Clontarf‭ ‬/Cath Cluain Tarbh,‭ (‬The Pasture of the Bulls‭) ‬was fought on this day‭ – ‬Good Friday.‭ ‬The victors were the forces of King Brian Boru of Munster leading a force primarily of the men of Munster and south Connacht along with a small contingent of Limerick and perhaps Waterford Vikings.‭ ‬His erstwhile ally‭ ‬Mael Sechnaill of Meath held back on the day of the Battle.‭ ‬Thus Brian’s men alone faced the Vikings of Dublin and the Isles and their allies the Leinstermen under King Maelmorda.‭ ‬The result was a great Victory for King Brian but as the day ended he was killed himself while praying in his camp.‭ ‬Clontarf was the greatest and bloodiest battle of the Viking age in Ireland.

The location of the actual battle site has been open to dispute,‭ ‬some of it convoluted in argument,‭ ‬but there is no conclusive proof that it was not at the location of the place we know today as Clontarf,‭ ‬now a suburb of Dublin City.‭ ‬The indications are that both armies were divided into‭ ‘‬Battles‭’ ‬that were led by the most prominent Leaders of their respective contingents.

Those the side of the Vikings were Brodar the Manxman,‭ ‬Earl Sigurd from the Orkneys,‭ ‬King Sitric of Dublin and the forces of King Maelmorda of Leinster.‭ ‬It’s possible that around‭ ‬5,500‭ ‬men were available to fight against Brian’s Army on the day.

King Brian brought a formidable Army to Dublin to do Battle.‭ ‬He had his own core group made up of the‭ ‬Dal Cais (east Co Clare) from his Home Territory,‭ ‬& the contingents of the men of Munster who owed him allegiance.‭ ‬From south Connacht there were the soldiers of two minor kingdoms related through family ties.‭ ‬He had too the services of perhaps some Vikings drawn from Limerick and Waterford.‭ ‬However around‭ ‬7,000‭ ‬warriors would be probably the maximum that Brian had available to bring to Dublin.‭ ‬There was also the Army of the King of Meath,‭  ‬Mael Sechnaill II,‭ ‬who would have at a maximum around‭ ‬2,500‭ ‬men to line out alongside Brian Boru.

The battle began at daybreak with challenges and shouts from both sides no doubt.‭ ‬Famous warriors would have been to the fore,‭ ‬eager to meet men of their own calibre in single combat.‭ ‬To the mass of combatants these epic struggles were just a prelude to the main‭ ‬Battles charging at each other and trying their best to emulate their own heroes.‭ ‬As the day wore on the Irish slowly gained the upper hand.‭ ‬The fighting was heavy on what appears to have been a sunny but somewhat windy Spring day.‭ ‬As the numbers of warriors dwindled on each side the fight started to concentrate around the standards and banners of the more important men.

With sunset approaching Victory was finally in the grasp of the Irish.‭ ‬King Brian had been left with just a few men to guard him in his Camp,‭ ‬no doubt men unfit for open combat and a few boys.‭ ‬The excitement of such a great Victory must have had this little Band on edge and they were keen to have a go themselves to finish off any stragglers that they could catch.‭ ‬News of all this was of course reaching Brian so he must have had the grim satisfaction of knowing the day was his.‭ ‬However he received a shattering blow in the closing stages of the battle for his aides had to inform him that Murchad’s Banner could no longer be seen and Brian knew that meant in all probability his beloved son and heir Murchad had fallen.‭

With Victory within sight the Irish pushed the Foreigners onto the seashore,‭ ‬their boats too far out to get to as the tide reached its high water mark.‭ ‬Many were drowned in desperate attempts to reach sanctuary onboard.‭ ‬The Manxman Brodar however was not amongst these forlorn fugitives.‭ ‬His‭ ‬Battle had been situated on the right flank of the Viking line and in the confusion of the final rout he and a few companions headed inland to avoid being trapped against the shore.‭ ‬As fate would have it his flight led him to Tomar’s Wood.‭ ‬Seeing a tent of some worth situated there he decided to find out to which worthy soul it might belong.‭ ‬Inside he saw just an old man with only a boy to protect him.‭ ‬He did not know who it was but one of his men had once served with the Vikings of Limerick and assured him it was actually King Brian who was inside.‭ ‬Brodar did not hesitate but set about the occupants with his weapon.‭ ‬He slew the King and fled the tent,‭ ‬exultant that his name would now live forever in memory of his bloody deed.‭ ‬ Soon however word spread that a Viking had killed Brian and a search was organised to track him down.‭ ‬The pursuers surrounded the wood and in a circle of warriors moved towards the centre of the enclosure to find the killer.‭ ‬Brodar was eventually cornered and ritually disembowelled in a gruesome and bloody execution.

So ended the Battle of Clontarf and Brian’s career.‭ ‬Tactically the battle was a great Irish Victory that smashed the invading force and Strategically it did mark the end of the threat of further Viking interference from overseas.‭ ‬However the cost of Victory had been high.‭ ‬King Brain was dead as was his heir Murchad and in turn his son Turlough.‭ ‬Many of the lesser kings of Munster had also fallen,‭ ‬including Brian’s son in law Cian.‭ ‬On the opposing side Earl Sigurd was dead and Brodar who met such a terrible end.‭ ‬King Maelmorda of Leinster was also killed on the field of battle,‭ ‬probably by Conaig,‭ ‬the nephew of Brian,‭ ‬who died of his wounds in turn.‭ ‬King Sitric of Dublin,‭ ‬if he was ever on the battlefield,‭ ‬returned to the city in time to view the final stages of the Munstermens Victory.

Brian was the most successful King to control Ireland prior to the Anglo-Norman invasion.‭ ‬He had shown that a King could indeed bring the whole island under personal sway.‭ ‬The battle of Clontarf unfortunately undid much of Brian’s work,‭ ‬not just in the fact of his death but also in the loss of his favourite son and heir,‭ ‬Murchad and in turn his son Turlough.‭ ‬Thus on one day three generations of Brian’s family had fallen.‭ ‬Brian was an old man and his death was not far off anyway.‭ ‬Within a few years his son Murchad,‭ ‬had he lived,‭ ‬would have had to face the challenge of imposing his will on the recently united island.‭ ‬He might just have pulled it off if Brian had lived long enough to secure commitments from the other kingdoms to recognise Murchad as his rightful successor to the Kingdom of Ireland.‭

* Battle of Clontarf, oil on canvas painting by Hugh Frazer, 1826

Friday, 21 April 2017

21 April 1916: The capture of Sir Roger Casement at Banna strand, Tralee Co Kerry on this day. He had been a distinguished member of the British consular service before the War but had become increasingly disillusioned with the British Empire and its role in the World, none more so on how Ireland was treated within it. On the outbreak of War he made his way to Germany to enlist its help to overthrow British rule in Ireland. But he felt that what help was on offer would not be enough to be successful. He requested a boat to take him back home and had decided within himself to use his powers to try and convince the IRB not to go ahead with a Rising. However if one were to take place he felt it his duty to be in Ireland at that time.

After a series of mishaps he and his companions were transported to the Irish coast by the submarine U19 and  near to where the SS Aud was attempting to land arms for the Rising to take place. But the U19, failing to find the ‘Aud Norge’, eventually landed Casement & his companions Monteith and Bailey by dinghy on the Irish shore. The dinghy overturned in surf on Banna Strand, near Ardfert Co Kerry. Casement had been ill for some time before the journey and was far too weak to travel or run. He took refuge in ‘McKenna’s Fort’ while Bailey and Monteith tried to make contact with the local IRB. However the local Irish constabulary were alerted & Casement was arrested, as were Monteith and Bailey shortly afterwards .

“When I landed in Ireland that morning (about 3 am) swamped and swimming ashore on an unknown strand, I was happy for the first time for over a year. Although I knew that this fate waited on me, I was for one brief spell happy and smiling once more. I cannot tell you what I felt. The sand hills were full of skylarks rising in the dawn, the first I had heard in years—the first sound I heard through the surf was their song as I waded through the breakers and they kept rising all the time up to the old rath at Currshone where I stayed and sent the others on and all round were primroses and wild violets and the singing of the skylarks in the air and I was back in Ireland again.”
Roger Casement to his sister, Mrs Nina Newman from Pentonville Gaol 25 July 1916

They were taken to Tralee RIC barracks for questioning before being dispatched to Dublin.‭ ‬From here Casement was rushed on to London and imprisoned in Pentonville Prison.‭ ‬He was charged with‭ ‘‬Treason‭’‬.‭ ‬Put on trial his defence team put up a formidable set of arguments against his conviction but the evidence from the British perspective was damning.‭ ‬In addition the notorious‭ ‘‬Black Diaries‭’ ‬detailing his alleged Homosexual activities were used to undermine his reputation.‭ ‬He was hanged at Pentonville in August‭ ‬1916.‭ ‬His remains was returned to Ireland in‭ ‬1965‭ ‬and he was given a State Funeral in Glasnevin Cemetery,‭ ‬Dublin.

Thursday, 20 April 2017

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20 April 1946: Johanna Mary "Hanna" Sheehy Skeffington Suffragette, Republican and political activist died on this day. She was born in 1877 in Kanturk Co Cork, the daughter of the future Nationalist MP David Sheehy &. Elizabeth "Bessie" McCoy. From an early age she was imbued with the spirit of political activity to free Ireland from British Rule and to improve the lot of women in Irish Society. Whilst still very young her family moved to Dublin.

When Hanna was a teenager, the Sheehys held an open house on the second Sunday night of each month. They encouraged young people to visit them and their six children. The Sheehys were fond of singing and playing games, and would ask their guests to sing. Hanna was sent to Germany for a short period when she was 18 years old to get treatment for tuberculosis. After graduating from the Royal University of Ireland, she moved to Paris to work as an Au Pair and returned to Ireland in 1902. She sat for examinations at Royal University of Ireland and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1899, and a Master of Arts Degree with first-class honours in 1902. This led to a career as a teacher in Eccles Street and an examiner in the Intermediate Certificate examination

Hanna married Francis Skeffington on June 3, 1903 at University Chapel in St. Stephen's Green, Dublin. The couple wore their graduation gowns as a substitute for a traditional wedding gown and suit. Both husband and wife took the surname Sheehy Skeffington as a symbol of their honour for one another.

It was this point on that her political activity really took off as her husband was as a committed activist as she was. In 1908 she was a founder member of The Irish Women's Franchise League dedicated to ensuring Votes for Women in Parliamentary elections. On 13 June 1912, she, along with seven other women, were arrested for smashing the glass windows of Dublin Castle. They served a month long sentence in Mountjoy Prison alongside another month after they refused to pay a fine. They were granted the privileges of political prisoners. Sheehy Skeffington was fired in 1913 from her job as a teacher at Rathmines School of Commerce for her continued involvement in feminist militancy.

When the Great War broke out in 1914 she became involved in the anti-recruiting campaign and was prevented by the British government from attending a conference held in The Hague in April 1915 on Women’s Rights. The watershed in her life came during the Easter Rising 1916 when her husband Francis was brutally murdered by a deranged British Officer. She did not find out about his death until two days had passed.

She joined Sinn Fein in the aftermath of the Rising. In December 1916 she went to the US to raise awareness of Ireland’s Cause and she attended some 250 meetings there across America. She was later imprisoned by the British in Holloway Prison London for actively opposing the War. In 1920 she joined a Dublin corporation as a councillor. She resumed work on The Irish Citizen and in 1919 became organising secretary of Sinn Fein.

She opposed the Treaty in 1921 and again toured the USA in 1922 to raise funds to help Republican prisoners. In 1926 she joined Fianna Fáil as an executive, however she only kept this position for one year. She was disillusioned with the new Irish Free State and felt that women had not yet achieved their rightful place in Society especially in the new Irish Constitution of 1937. She stood for election to the Dáil in 1943 but was not returned.

Her daughter in law Andrée Sheehy-Skeffington (wife of her only son Owen Sheehy-Skeffington) recalled Hanna with great affection:

‘She was very helpful, but she could also be quietly critical. When I told her that I and some friends were forming the Irish Housewives Associations she said, “You’re not wedded to the house, you know!”’.

‘She was very fond of animals and also of flowers, particularly the orange lily. People used to raise an eyebrow at this, and she would say, “I will not allow Orangemen to have a monopoly of this beautiful flower!”’.

‘It was startling to see on her mantelpiece a photo of a British officer in uniform. This was Major Sir Francis Vane, who had ordered an enquiry into the murder of her husband. He did all he could to see that justice was done, and it cost him his position in the British Army’.

She died on 20 April 1946 and is buried alongside her husband in Glasnevin cemetery in Dublin.

Wednesday, 19 April 2017

19‭ ‬April‭ ‬1741:‭ ‬In a letter to Dr.‭ ‬Thomas Prior,‭ ‬Dublin,‭ ‬the Bishop of Cloyne,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬George Berkeley,‭ ‬wrote of the Famine which was then raging:

The distresses of the sick and poor are endless.‭ ‬The havoc of mankind in the counties of Cork,‭ ‬Limerick and some adjacent places hath been incredible.‭ ‬The nation,‭ ‬probably,‭ ‬will not recover this loss in a century.‭ ‬The other day I heard one from the county of Limerick say that whole villages were entirely dispeopled.

The Great Famine of‭ ‬1741‭ ‬had its origins in the‭ ‘‬Great Frost‭’ ‬of January‭ ‬1740‭ ‬when an intense and bitter cold that emanated from the Artic and not experienced in living memory swept across Western Europe.‭ ‬So cold was it that birds dropped from the sky and seed was destroyed in the ground.‭ ‬Trade came to a halt as ports froze up and travel became almost impossible.‭ ‬In the Springtime the expected rains did not come,‭ ‬and though the Frost dissipated,‭ ‬the temperatures remained low and the northerly winds very strong.‭ ‬By the Summer of‭ ‬1740,‭ ‬the Frost had decimated the potatoes and the Drought had wrought havoc with the grain harvest and the herds of cattle and sheep had suffered huge losses.

In the Autumn a meagre harvest commenced and prices in the towns started to fall.‭ ‬Cattle began to recover,‭ ‬but in the dairying districts,‭ ‬cows had been so weak after the Frost that at least a third of them had failed to‭ “‬take bull‭”‬.‭ ‬Then blizzards swept along the east coast in late October and more snow fell several times in November.‭ ‬A massive downpour of rain fell on‭ ‬9‭ ‬December causing widespread flooding.‭ ‬A day after the floods,‭ ‬the temperature plummeted,‭ ‬snow fell,‭ ‬and rivers and other bodies of water froze.‭ ‬Warm temperatures followed the cold snap,‭ ‬which lasted about ten days.‭ ‬Great chunks of ice careened down the River Liffey and through the heart of Dublin,‭ ‬overturning light vessels and causing larger vessels to break anchor.‭ ‬The price of foodstuffs rocketed and people began to starve.‭

The Spring of‭ ‬1741‭ ‬went down in popular memory as the‭ ‬Black Spring of‭ ’‬41‭ ‬as the impact of two very hard Winters and the destruction of so much livestock and grain supplies began to be felt.‭ ‬This was especially so amongst the rural and urban poor of whom there were very many in Ireland at that time.‭ ‬Diseases swept the Country:‭ ‬Dysentery‭; ‬Smallpox and Typhus took the lives of many thousands.

Sir Richard Cox wrote from Cork in April that year:‭ 

Mortality is now no longer heeded‭; ‬the instances are so frequent.‭ ‬And burying the dead,‭ ‬which used to be one of the most religious acts among the Irish,‭ ‬is now become a burthen…In short,‭ ‬by all I can learn,‭ ‬the dreadfullest civil war,‭ ‬or most raging plague never destroyed so many as this season.‭ ‬The distempers and famine increase so that it is no vain fear that there will not be hands to save the harvest.

Eventually in the Summer of‭ ‬1741‭ ‬the Crises abated and while the situation was still very hard the plagues and starvation eased off.‭ ‬The next Harvest while not abundant was sufficient to ensure that enough food would be available to avert a similar situation the following year.

So ended what was the worst set of recorded climate related disasters to hit Ireland since at least the‭ ‬14th Century.‭ ‬Nobody knows how many people died as a result of this Great Famine of‭ ‬1741‭ ‬and the hardships that preceded its apogee.‭ ‬Out of an overall estimated population at the time of around‭ ‬2.4‭ ‬million it seems probable that between‭ ‬300,000‭ ‬and‭ ‬450,000‭ ‬of the people died as a result‭ – ‬a mortality rate that stands comparison with if it did not actually exceed the more infamous events of the‭ ‬1840s.‭ 


Tuesday, 18 April 2017

18 April 1939: Ishbel Maria Gordon, Lady Aberdeen (1857-1939) died on this day. Her husband Lord Aberdeen held the Viceroyalty of Ireland in 1886 and again from 1906 to 1915.

Born Ishbel (Gaelic for Isabel) Maria Marjoribanks, she was the third daughter of the 1st Baron Tweedmouth and Isabella Weir-Hogg (daughter of Sir James Weir Hogg). On 7 November 1877 she married the Liberal politician the 7th Earl of Aberdeen (later the 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair), in St. George's Church, St. George Street, Hanover Square, London.

Both were fervent Home Rulers, and they were aware of the imbalance between urban poverty and the new rural prosperity. Lady Aberdeen founded the Women's National Health Association which established playgrounds in the Dublin slums and a depot to supply milk to the city's sick children. The Association, also opened sanatoriums and organised exhibitions, which travelled round Ireland as part of an intensive campaign against tuberculosis.

The Aberdeens were keen to see the revitalisation of Dublin's inner city and they twice brought a Town Planning Exhibition to Dublin and organised a civic exhibition attended by all municipal and local authorities. Although well intentioned, the new town plan was never implemented. Lady Aberdeen, later wrote:

'If we could have persuaded some of the Cabinet Ministers to come across to see things for themselves, the result might have been different ... To turn from rural to the urban districts of Ireland would have surely convinced [them] that the housing conditions of the cities and towns of Ireland remained a blot and a menace, culminating in Dublin ... '

A keen feminist, she did not endear herself to the social establishment by her efforts to promote women's rights, democratic attitudes, and religious and ethnic tolerance. She caused a social scandal while in Canada when she joined her servants to take high tea. The Aberdeens were given a huge farewell on their departure from Ireland in 1915.

Lady Aberdeen was president of the International Council of Women for thirty-six years (1893–1936) and the National Council of Women of Canada for six years (1893–1899). When her husband was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, she took up the fight against tuberculosis, starting the Woman's National Health Association.

'The Earl and Countess of Aberdeen had a greater impact on Dublin society than any Vice Regal couple since the Clarendons - but for very different reasons. They inspired some affection and a great deal of ridicule in the nine years that they spent in Vice-Regal Lodge. There was something faintly ridiculous about their appearance, described by Leon O'Broin as:

"he bearded and small and polite, she disproportionately large, matronly and masterful."

Lady Aberdeen had a genius for getting things a little wrong, for meddling in matters that had nothing whatsoever to do with her and for an apparent inability to recognise rebuff....

However all recognised that she had a heart of Gold and a strong dislike of Injustice in this World. If she had faults they were far outweighed by her qualities of organising and basically cajoling the powers that be to improve the lot of the ordinary people.

However while very well meaning the good Lady was not the most tactful of people in all situations, the story goes that back in 1886 at the time of Gladstone's first Home Rule Bill she was dining in Dublin Castle when she remarked to Lord Chief Justice Morris:

"I suppose everyone but yourself is a Home Ruler here tonight."

"Not at all, Your Excellency", he replied frostily. "Barring yourself and the waiters there's not a Home Ruler in the room."

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Monday, 17 April 2017

17‭ ‬April‭ ‬1876:‭ ‬The whaling vessel‭ ‬Catalpa rescued six Irish prisoners from British Captivity on this day.‭ ‬The ship under Captain George S.‭ ‬Anthony carried out one of the most daring and long distance rescues in history when she was used to spirit away the six Fenian prisoners from Freemantle,‭ ‬Australia.‭ ‬Even though the British quickly realised the men had fled and gave chase the ship could not be boarded as she flew the American flag.‭ ‬The rescued men‭ (‬Thomas Darragh,‭ ‬Martin Hogan,‭ ‬Michael Harrington,‭ ‬Thomas Hassett,‭ ‬Robert Cranston and James Wilson‭) ‬were brought safely to New York City.‭ ‬The Fenians John Devoy and John J.‭ ‬Breslin planned the rescue operation from America and Breslin was dispatched to Australia to co-ordinate the rescue.

In July‭ ‬1874‭ ‬the Clan na Gael Organisation in the USA decided to rescue the six prisoners who were excluded from a conditional pardon for all civilian Fenian prisoners.‭ ‬These men had been members of the British Army and thus considered outright‭ ‘‬Traitors‭’ ‬by the British.‭ ‬John Devoy was assigned to co-ordinate this rescue.‭ ‬He saw that funds were raised and a Captain George S.‭ ‬Anthony was‭ ‘‬head hunted‭’ ‬to undertake the dangerous mission.‭ ‬When it was put to him he was willing to take the risk.‭ ‬It was then decided that the voyage must look like a whaling voyage,‭ ‬thus Captain Anthony went looking for a suitable ship.‭ ‬In the port of Boston he found one that suited his needs and purchased the‭ ‬Catalpa,‭ ‬a three-master whaler,‭ ‬for‭ ‬$5200.

The ship set out from New Bedford,‭ ‬Massachusetts,‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬in April‭ ‬1875.‭ ‬The Voyage was undertaken with the deliberate intention engaging in a daring a yearlong mission of international rescue.‭ ‬On‭ ‬28‭ ‬March‭ ‬1876‭ ‬the Catalpa arrived off Bunbury Harbour,‭ ‬Western Australia and a meeting was set up between Captain Anthony and John Breslin.‭ ‬At this meeting they agreed the rescue date should be on‭ ‬6‭ ‬April.‭ ‬However due to the presence of a British gunboat at the Harbour and the information that another gunboat was due to arrive they rescheduled the rescue for‭ ‬17‭ ‬April.

With the help of the prison chaplain,‭ ‬the six men escaped to the coast where Captain Anthony was waiting with a small whaleboat that would take them to the Catalpa.‭ ‬The resistance they overcame,‭ ‬both from armed British vessels and a furious sea storm,‭ ‬made their escape the stuff of legend.‭ ‬The British attempted to capture the Catalpa but Captain Anthony had the Flag of the United States raised and warned the prospective boarders that such a move would be viewed as an Act of War.‭ ‬They thought the better of it and the Catalpa made good her escape.‭

The Catalpa landed the‭ ‘‬Freemantle Six‭’ ‬in New York Harbour on‭ ‬19‭ ‬August‭ ‬1876.‭ ‬Though Captain Anthony would never again put to sea in open waters for fear of arrest by the British,‭ ‬his rescue voyage,‭ ‬made mostly without the use of a functioning chronometer,‭ ‬is one of the greatest feats of seamanship ever recorded in nautical annals.